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Attitudes to Gentiles in ancient Judaism and early by David C. Sim, James S. McLaren, Chris Keith

By David C. Sim, James S. McLaren, Chris Keith

This quantity describes the attitudes in the direction of Gentiles in either historic Judaism and the early Christian culture. The Jewish dating with and perspectives concerning the Gentiles performed a massive half in Jewish self-definition, particularly within the Diaspora the place Jews shaped the minority between higher Gentile populations. Jewish attitudes in the direction of the Gentiles are available within the writings of fashionable Jewish authors (Josephus and Philo), sectarian activities and texts (the Qumran group, apocalyptic literature, Jesus) and in Jewish associations corresponding to the Jerusalem Temple and the synagogue. within the Christian culture, which begun as a Jewish circulation yet built speedy right into a predominantly Gentile culture, the function and standing of Gentile believers in Jesus used to be consistently of an important importance. Did Gentile believers have to convert to Judaism as a vital part in their association with Jesus, or had the looks of the messiah rendered such differences invalid? This quantity assesses the wide range of viewpoints when it comes to attitudes in the direction of Gentiles and the prestige and expectancies of Gentiles within the Christian church.

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1 1. SIM Gentiles, God-Fearers and Proselytes 21 These exceptions to the general rule must be put into proper perspective. 26 This conclusion, however, exceeds the evidence. It turns these two very rare exceptions, occasioned either by expediency or local ideology, into representative accounts of a wider view within the Jewish tradition. Since these cases are rare and exceptional, most scholars accept that there was no meaningful diversity within Judaism on this issue. 28 It should be noted that in the ancient world the removal of an adult male’s foreskin was a painful and dangerous procedure.

Since these cases are rare and exceptional, most scholars accept that there was no meaningful diversity within Judaism on this issue. 28 It should be noted that in the ancient world the removal of an adult male’s foreskin was a painful and dangerous procedure. 29 In the case of female converts they too were expected to learn and obey the Torah, particularly the rules governing women, but it is unclear whether in the Second Temple period they were required to undergo a formal initiation rite akin to the male ritual of circumcision.

26 25 See above on Post. 89-91, Plant. 58-60. 26 This account of rewards and punishments in De Praemiis et Poenis (and the text in Mos. 278-91 about to be discussed) is the closest that Philo gets to what might be called an eschatology. It is based on Pentateuchal texts and remains rather vague. See further P. Borgen, ‘ “There Shall Come Forth a Man”: ReÀections on Messianic Ideas in Philo’, in J. H. 341–61. 38 Attitudes to Gentiles The same theme and text also occur in De vita Mosis 1–2, Philo’s biography of the Jewish lawgiver.

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