By Raymond C. Loehr
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Extra info for Agricultural Waste Management: Problems, Processes and Approaches
Specialization has removed cattle from pasture and grass land and has resulted in confinement of large numbers in small areas with an average density of one animal per 50 to 150 ft . The number of cattle on feed for slaughter was over 13 million head in 1970, an increase of 73% in the previous decade. During this period, the number of cattle on feed in the United States increased at the rate of over one-half million head per year. Since midcentury, commercial feedlot operations in which feed and water are brought to the animals in confined areas have been expanding rapidly.
Res. , 5th, 1970 (1970). 14. Uhrig, J. , L o n g range o u t l o o k bright for cattle. Nat. Live Stock Prod. p p . 16-17 (1969). 15. U . S . D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture, " N u m b e r of Feedlots by Size G r o u p s and N u m b e r s of Feed Cattle M a r k e t e d , " Statistical R e p o r t i n g Service, Periodic R e p o r t s from 1966 to 1970. U . S . D e p . , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . 16. Rose, W. , Mercer, W. , Sternberg, R. , Brauner, G. , Olson, Ν . , a n d Weckel, K. , " P r o d u c t i o n a n d Disposal Practices for Liquid Wastes from C a n n e r y a n d Freezing Fruits a n d Vegetables," Proc.
The fruit and vegetable canning and freezing industry includes operations in over 1800 plants. The industry utilized about 99 billion gallons of intake water, recirculated about 64%, and discharged about 96 billion gallons (16). 11). When all of the raw products of the food processing industry are considered, the distribution of the input has been estimated as 56% vegetables, 36% fruit, 10% specialties, and 3% seafood (17). During the past decades, there has been a constant consolidation of smaller operations into larger, more centralized ones.